For the a good multicenter, double-blind, placebo-regulated trial, 672 fit people (suggest chronilogical age of 61
Up until the matchmaking anywhere between calcium supplements and you will prostate cancer tumors try made clear, it is practical for males to consume a total of 1,100000 to one,200 milligrams/day of calcium (diet and supplements shared), that is needed of the Food and Nutrition Panel of one’s Institute out of Medication (look for RDA) (9)
8 ages) was indeed randomized in order to day-after-day calcium supplements (step 1,2 hundred milligrams) for several years. If you’re no escalation in the chance to have prostate cancer might have been claimed while in the an excellent 10.3-12 months go after-upwards, calcium supplements supplements led to a significant chance lack of that time comprising of 24 months immediately after treatment come to 2 yrs immediately following treatment concluded (150). When you look at the a review of the fresh new literature authored in 2009, the us Institution having Medical care Research and you will High quality showed that not all of the epidemiological degree found an association ranging from calcium supplements consumption and you can prostate malignant tumors (151). The fresh new comment reported that six out-of eleven observational studies were not successful to locate statistically extreme positive connections between prostate cancers and you may calcium intake. Yet, inside the four training, each and every day consumption out of 921 so you’re able to dos,100 mg from calcium datingranking.net/vanilla-umbrella-review had been seen to be in the an enthusiastic improved danger of development prostate cancer tumors when compared with intakes ranging out of 455 to 1,100 milligrams/date (151). Inconsistencies certainly one of degree strongly recommend complex relationships between your exposure circumstances for prostate cancers, in addition to mirror the difficulties out-of examining the result out of calcium consumption in free-way of living anyone. Like, that people with high milk and you may/or calcium supplements intakes were seen to be likely to getting involved with match life-style or higher planning seek medical assistance can decrease the latest analytical dependence on an association having prostate cancer exposure (152).
Carry out calcium boost the chance to possess cardiovascular disease?
Numerous observational knowledge and you can randomized managed examples have increased issues from the potential negative effects out-of calcium supplements with the cardio chance. The analysis of information in the Kuopio Osteoporosis Chance Grounds and you will Protection (OSTPRE) prospective analysis learned that profiles out-of calcium between ten,555 Finnish lady (many years 52-62 many years) got a fourteen% higher risk of developing coronary artery state compared to low-complement pages while in the a suggest follow-right up away from six.75 decades (153). The mark study of 23,980 users (35-64 yrs old) of the Heidelberg cohort of your own Western european Potential Analysis towards the Disease and you may Diet cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg) noticed you to definitely extra calcium intake was certainly on the chance from myocardial infarction (heart attack) but not on the likelihood of heart attack otherwise cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated mortality once a suggest follow-upwards away from 11 decades (154). Yet ,, the utilization of calcium supplements (?eight hundred mg/time against. 0 milligrams/day) are of this an increased risk of CVD-related mortality into the 219,059 people, although not from inside the 169,170 female, included in the Federal Institute regarding Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health analysis and you can followed getting an indicate several months away from twelve age. CVD mortality into the boys was also seen to be notably higher with overall (dietary and additionally supplemental) calcium intakes of just one,five-hundred mg/big date and you may more than (155).
In addition, the secondary analyses of two randomized placebo-controlled trials initially designed to assess the effect of calcium on bone health outcomes also suggested an increased risk of CVD in participants daily supplemented with 1,000 mg of calcium for five to seven years (156, 157). In the Auckland Calcium Study of 1,471 healthy postmenopausal women (ages ?55 years), calcium supplementation resulted in increased risks of myocardial infarction and of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, including myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (156). The analysis of data from 36,282 healthy postmenopausal women randomized to receive a combination of calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day) or a placebo in the Women’s Health Initiative/Calcium-Vitamin D supplementation study (WHI/CaD study) initially reported no adverse effect on any cardiovascular endpoints with calcium (and vitamin D) compared to placebo (158). A re-analysis was performed with data from 16,718 women who did not take personal calcium supplements (outside protocol) during the five-year study (157). Although criticized on the approach taken (134, 159), the investigators estimated that women supplemented with calcium and vitamin D had a 16% increased risk of clinical myocardial infarction or stroke and a 21% increased risk of myocardial infarction compared to those who received a placebo (157). However, in another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial – the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome (CAIFOS) study – in elderly women (median age, 75.1 years), the supplementation of 1,200 mg/day of calcium for five years was not found to increase the risk of vascular disease or related mortality (160). The WHI/CaD data re-analysis also failed to show an increased risk of mortality due to myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease with calcium therapy (156). Also, after an additional follow-up of 4.5 years at the end of the treatment period in the CAIFOS trial, the investigators reported fewer cases of heart failure-related deaths with supplemental calcium compared to placebo (160). In another randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium and/or vitamin D3 (RECORD trial), the evaluation of the effect of 1,000 mg/day of calcium (alone or with 800 IU/day of vitamin D) reported no significant increase in the rate of mortality due to vascular disease in 5,292 participants ages 70 years and older (161). A recent cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) evaluated the association between calcium intakes and cardiovascular mortality in 18,714 adults with no history of heart disease. No evidence of an association was observed between dietary calcium intake, supplemental calcium intake, or total calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality in either men or women (162).